Congenital heart defects

From ventricular septal defect to aortic stenosis, pulmonary stenosis and Fallot tetralogy to atrioventricular septal defect: Information about the most common congenital heart defects. Read more about symptoms, causes, treatment and prognosis of congenital heart defects.


Congenital cardiac malformations, Cardiac vitium, Vitium cordis


Baby with congenital heart defect

Congenital heart defects are extremely diverse. They include, for example, malformations of the heart, the heart valves and the vessels of the cardiopulmonary circulation.

Sometimes these malformations are so slight that they do not even stand out during the initial examination, sometimes for years – or cause no symptoms. In the majority of cases, however, congenital heart defects have to be operated on sooner or later – mostly still in infancy or toddler age.

However, the chances of a comparatively normal life are very good for most congenital heart defects.


More than 300,000 people with a congenital heart defect live in Germany. And about 6,000 children are added every year. The likelihood of a congenital is small, but significantly higher than many people think: it is 0.8 percent. Most of these newborns are born with a combination of heart defects. Congenital heart defects often occur together with a chromosome disorder (e.g. trisomy 21, 13 or 18).

Types of congenital heart defects


Aortic stenosis is a congenital heart defect that does not affect the heart directly, but the main artery. More about aortic stenosis.

Congenital heart defect

Aortic valve stenosis

Aortic valve stenoses are congenital or acquired constrictions of the heart. More about the cause, symptoms and treatment of aortic stenosis.

Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD)

The atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) is a complicated congenital heart defect. More about symptoms and treatment of AVSD.

Father and baby

Tetralogy of Fallot

Fallot tetralogy is a congenital heart defect with 4 malformations of the heart and pulmonary artery. More about symptoms and treatment of Fallot tetralogy.

Girl with a self-painted picture

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a severe congenital heart defect. More about symptoms and treatment of the syndrome.


Mitral valve insufficiency is often a congenital heart valve defect or a consequence of heart disease. More about symptoms, causes and treatment of heart valve failure.

Pulmonary valve stenosis

In pulmonary stenosis or pulmonary valve stenosis, the pulmonary artery or the associated heart valve is narrowed. More about symptoms, causes and treatment of pulmonary stenoses.

pregnant woman

Large Artery Transposition (TGA)

The transposition of the large arteries is a congenital heart defect that can be successfully treated with an arterial switch operation.


Ventricular septal defect

A hole in the ventricular septum is the most common congenital heart defect. More about symptoms and treatment of ventricular septal defect.

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